Distributed registers in digital economy: database, technology or protocol?

Currently there is no generally accepted interpretation and classification of distributed registers, which significantly impedes the development of scientific research of digital financial assets, hinders the process of their legitimization and integration into the financial sphere at the state and international levels, as well as complicates the regulation of social and economic processes, including Russia. The article presents an analysis of conceptual approaches to the definition of the «distributed register» as the basis of innovative financial and calculation instruments, proposes the authors' interpretation of this concept, systematized and supplemented the classification of distributed registers from the method of exchange, storage and processing of information based on a set of technologies

Keywords: distributed registry, digital financial asset, digital technology, digital system


  1. S. Bazanov. Crypto currencies: terms and abbreviations. https://medium.com/bitcoin-review/cryptocurrency-terms-and-reduction-27293b8413cc.
  2. D. Batrakov. Should distributed registry technologies be introduced everywhere? https://fbs-tax.com/mediacenter/blog-ru/is-itworthimplementing-distributed-ledger-technologies-worldwide.
  3. I. A. Belarev, A. S. Obaeva. On the distributed register and possibilities of its application//Journal of the Financial University. 2017. Vol. 21. № 2 (98). P. 94-99.
  4. O. S. Bolotaeva. Main directions of legal regulation of distributed registry systems in conditions of digital economy formation//Journal of the M. K. Ammosov North-East Federal University. Series: «History. Political science. Right». 2017. № 4 (8). P. 68-75.
  5. S. N. Borisova. Distributed registry technology as a way to protect data from substitution//Engineering and technology. 2018. Vol. 3 (2). https://engineering.pnzgu.ru/files/engineering.pnzgu.ru/iit_2018_vol_3_2_12.pdf.
  6. A. Varnavsky. What is blockchain technology? In simple words http://www.tsu.ru/podrobnosti/chto-takoe-tekhnologiya-blokcheynprostymislovami.
  7. Report for public consultation. Development of distributed registry technology. Central Bank of the Russian Federation, December 2017. https://www.cbr.ru/content/document/file/36007/reestr_survey.pdf.
  8. A. Il’insky. The ECB and the Bank of Russia are looking at distributed register technology. http: //realtribune.ru/news/economics/57
  9. A. A. Inyushkin. Comparison of legal regulation of databases, distributed registers and blockchain technology in Russian legislation//Theory and practice of public development. 2018. № 6. P. 100-102.
  10. D. A. Kachan, A. P. Moskalenko. Informatization of education system management using elements of distributed registers technology//Design of the future. Problems of digital reality: works of the 2nd International Conference (February 7-8, 2019, Moscow). 2019. P. 207-214. https://keldysh.ru/future/2019/19.pdf.
  11. G. Kachmazov, Y. Kozhevnikova. How blockchain and distributed registers will transform the real estate market. https://zen.yandex.ru/media/tranio.ru/kak-blokchein-i-raspredelennye-reestry-preobraziat-rynok-nedvijimosti-5b8541dd700f7d00aa14451b.
  12. D. Klein. The technology of the distributed DLT register is outside the blockchain. https://crypto-fox.ru/faq/distributed-ledgertechnology.
  13. I. Korolev. Blockchain will bring the Russian economy 1.6 trillion. Where will they come from? http://www.cnews.ru/news/top/2019-07-17_blokchejn_prineset_rossijskoj_ekonomike_16_trillionov.
  14. A. A. Kosmarsky. Blockchain for Science: Revolutionary Opportunities, Implementation Prospects, Potential Problems//Public Opinion Monitoring: Economic and Social Change. 2019. № 2 (150). P. 388-409.
  15. P. S. Lozhnikov, A. E. Sulavko, S. S. Zhumazhanova. On the possibility of introducing technologies of distributed register into systems of mixed document circulation//Security of information technologies. 2019. Vol. 26. № 1. P. 15-24.
  16. A. I. Martyshkin. Possibilities of Blockchain technology in application for creation of distributed data registers//Modern innovative technologies of engineering personnel training for mining industry and transport. 2019. Vol. 1. № 1 (6). P. 238-247.
  17. E. E. Pomazkova. Comparative analysis of blockchain and alternative distributed registry technologies//International Journal of Humanities and Natural Sciences. 2019. Vol. 4-2. P. 43-50.
  18. A. D. Sotnikov, G. R. Katasonova. To the issue of evaluating the effectiveness of solutions based on the use of distributed register technology// Cooperation of the Republic of Belarus and the Orenburg region in innovation activity. Proceedings of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. 2018. P. 249-252.
  19. Distributed registry terminology. Version 1.0, 11.04.2019. SPbSU Distributed Registry Technology Center. https://dltc.spbu.ru/images/files/glossary_v1_0.pdf.
  20. S. V. Tsoi, V. M. Prokhorov. Application of distributed registers technology in supply chain management//Materials of the XIV International Scientific and Practical Conference: Logistics - Eurasian Bridge. Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University. 2019. P. 435-438.
  21. K. Shwab. Fourth Industrial Revolution/Transl. from English. M.: Publishing House «E», 2017. 208 p.
  22. D. Shustov. Blockchain and distributed registry technology. https://blockchain3.ru/blokchejn/blokchejn-i-tehnologiyaraspredelennyhreestrov.
  23. B3i – The Blockchain Insurance Industry Initiative. https://b3i.tech/home.html.
  24. Bitcoin – Open source P2P money. https://bitcoin.org/ru.
  25. Corda Network – Enabling Interoperability Between Blockchain Business Networks. https://www.r3.com/corda-network.
  26. C. J. Date. Date on Database: Writings 2000-2006. Apress, 2006. 566 р.
  27. EnergyWeb. https://www.energyweb.org.
  28. Ethereum is a global, open-source platform for decentralized applications. https://www.ethereum.org.
  29. M. Frydel. Distributed ledger technology: the secret technology beyond the blockchain. https://bitemycoin.com/guides/distributed-ledgertechnology.
  30. M. Hancock, E. Vaizey. Distributed Ledger Technology: beyond block chain. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/ system/uploads/attachment_data/file/492972/gs-16-1-distributed-ledger-technology.pdf.
  31. Hyperledger – Open source blockchain Technologies. https://www.hyperledger.org.
  32. F. Khan. What are the different types of DLTs & how they work? https://medium.com/datadriveninvestor/what-are-the-different-types-ofdlts-how-they-work-8ddeeda2d3a1.
  33. C. LeMahieu. RaiBlocks: Crypto-currency network without commissions. https://nano.org/ru/whitepaper.
  34. S. Meiklejohn. Top Ten Obstacles Along Distributed Ledgers' Path to Adoption. R3 Reports. https://www.r3.com/wp-content/ uploads/2018/04/Top_Ten_Obstacles_R3.pdf.
  35. E. Mesropyan. 21 Areas of Blockchain Application Beyond Financial Services. https://gomedici.com/21-areas-of-blockchain-applicationbeyond-financial-services.
  36. D. Mills, K. Wang, B. Malone, A. Ravi et al. Distributed ledger technology in payments, clearing, and settlement//Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2016-095. Washington: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, https://doi.org/10.17016/FEDS.2016.095.
  37. MONAX. https://monax.io.
  38. Monero(XMR). https://monero.org.
  39. MultiChain – Open source blockchain platform. https://www.multichain.com.
  40. Nxt – Jelurida. https://www.jelurida.com/nxt.
  41. Obyte – An open cryptocurrency platform ready for real world adoption. https://byteball.org.
  42. J. Plansky, T. O'Donnel, K. Richards. A strategist’s guide to blockchain. https://www.strategy-business.com/article/A-Strategists-Guide-to-Blockchain?gko=9d4ef.
  43. The Next Generation of Distributed Technology. https://www.iota.org.