Purposes – to study various approaches to concept of «innovations», historical development of the category «innovations», extending it to the sphere of ecology; to track the nature of externalies; to establish interrelation of the category «public benefits» with spheres of innovations and ecology. Methodology of research – a dialectic and critical analysis of schools and trends at economic thought. The innovation process makes an economy dynamic. Author marked driving forces of the innovation process and the needs of its greening. Objects and subjects of innovation and their types were determined. The author has distinguished multivariate concept of «innovation», its close relationship with the controversial economic, social and technological aspects of the society life. Innovative process generates externalies of different types, primarily in the field of ecology, because the environmental field does not imply automatic market regulation. The author has distinguished the ways of solutions to the problem of negative externalies. The state should be considered as the main regulator in the non-market environment, in particular ecological
Keywords: innovation, externalies, ecology, public benefits, «free-rider» problem
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