In this article, the benefits and forms of university-industry cooperation are analyzed, and the role of academic engagement for MNEs is discussed in relation to the decision to internationalize R&D in host countries. Different forms of academic engagement are reviewed on the examples from the Russian IT industry, and a classification of cooperation models is proposed, which aims at explicating and simplifying managerial decision-making with regard to choosing an appropriate form of university-industry cooperation The paper uses both secondary and primary sources of information. For the first part of the study, in-depth interviews were conducted among managers of academic engagement programs between MNEs operating in the IT industry and Russian universities. Secondary data is used to sort existing practices according to the proposed categorization of university-industry forms of cooperation. Finally, the case of Dell EMC academic engagement in Russia is described to support the proposed categorization and depict directions of future studies. As a result, the benefits of academic engagement were aligned with the challenges, which MNEs face as they design their R&D strategies and consider between localization and internationalization. A categorization of university-industry cooperation models has been established as forms of such partnerships were distinguished and described. The research is exploring important challenges for MNEs in a very specific and understudied aspect of university-industry cooperation. The results of the paper may be used both by other researchers and practitioners, who are interested in the Russian market, or are choosing among different forms of collaboration with universities
Keywords: university-industry cooperation, MNEs, academic engagement, R and D strategies
1. E. Mansfield (1995). Academic research underlying industrial innovations: sources characteristics and financing//The review of Economics and Statistics. P. 55-65.
2. M. Beise, H. Stahl (1999). Public research and industrial innovations in Germany//Research policy. Vol. 28. No. 4. P. 397-422.
3. W. M. Cohen, R. R. Nelson, J. P. Walsh (2002). Links and impacts: the influence of public research on industrial R&D//Management science. Vol. 48. No. 1. P. 1-23.
4. A. Geuna, A. Muscio (2009). The governance of university knowledge transfer: A critical review of the literature//Minerva. Vol. 47. No. 1. P. 93-114.
5. I. Ramos-Vielba, M. Fernández-Esquinas (2012). Beneath the tip of the iceberg: Exploring the multiple forms of university–industry linkages//Higher Education. Vol. 64. No. 2. P. 237-265.
6. K. Pavitt (2001). Public policies to support basic research: What can the rest of the world learn from US theory and practice? And what they should not learn//Industrial and corporate change. Vol. 10. No. 3. P. 761-779.
7. P. Mueller (2006). Exploring the knowledge filter: How entrepreneurship and university–industry relationships drive economic growth//Research policy. Vol. 35. No. 10. P. 1499-1508.
8. M. Perkmann, V. Tartari, M. McKelvey, E. Autio, A. Broström, P. D’Este, R. Fini, A. Geuna, R. Grimaldi, A. Hughes, S. Krabel (2013). Academic engagement and commercialisation: A review of the literature on university–industry relations//Research Policy. Vol. 42. No. 2. P. 423-442.
9. J. W. Spencer (2001). How relevant is university-based scientific research to private high-technology firms? A United States–Japan comparison//Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 44. No. 2. P. 432-440.
10. K. Laursen, A. Salter (2004). Searching high and low: what types of firms use universities as a source of innovation?//Research policy. Vol. 33. No. 8. P. 1201-1215.
11. L. Bstieler, M. Hemmert, G. Barczak (2015). Trust Formation in University–Industry Collaborations in the US Biotechnology Industry: IP Policies Shared Governance and Champions//Journal of Product Innovation Management. Vol. 32. No. 1. P. 111-121.
12. A. Arundel, A. Geuna (2004). Proximity and the use of public science by innovative European firms//Economics of Innovation and new Technology. Vol. 13. No. 6. P. 559-580.
13. J. H. Eun, K. Lee, G. Wu (2006). Explaining the «University-run enterprises» in China: A theoretical framework for university– industry relationship in developing countries and its application to China//Research Policy. Vol. 35. No. 9. P. 1329-1346.
14. T. Schofield (2013). Critical success factors for knowledge transfer collaborations between university and industry//Journal of Research Administration. Vol. 44. No. 2 P. 38.
15. S. M. Puffer, D. J. McCarthy, A. M. Jaeger (2016). Institution building and institutional voids: Can Poland’s experience inform Russia and Brazil?//International Journal of Emerging Markets. Vol. 11. No. 1. P. 18-41.
16. A. M. Attia (2015). National innovation systems in developing countries: Barriers to university–industry collaboration in Egypt International//Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development. Vol. 14. No. 2. P. 113-124.
17. L. Bstieler, M. Hemmert, G. Barczak (2015). Trust Formation in University–Industry Collaborations in the US Biotechnology Industry: IP Policies Shared Governance and Champions//Journal of Product Innovation Management. Vol. 32. No. 1. P. 111-121.
18. W. M. Cohen, S. Klepper (1996). A reprise of size and R&D//The Economic Journal. P. 925-951.
19. A. Y. Lewin, S. Massini, C. Peeters (2009). Why are companies offshoring innovation? The emerging global race for talent//Journal of International Business Studies. P. 901-925.
20. J. G. Thursby, M. C. Thursby (2006). Here or There? a survey of factors in multinational R&D location: report to the Government/ University/Industry research roundtable A Survey of Factors in Multinational R&D Location: Report to the Government/University/Industry Research Roundtable (December 1 2006). Kauffman Foundation Large Research Projects Research.
21. P. Maskell, A. Malmberg (1999). Localised learning and industrial competitiveness//Cambridge journal of economics. Vol. 23. No. 2. P. 167-185.
22. M. I. Kafouros, N. Forsans (2012). The role of open innovation in emerging economies: Do companies profit from the scientific knowledge of others?//Journal of World Business. Vol. 47. No. 3. P. 362-370.
23. E. Rugraff, M. W. Hansen (2011). Multinational corporations and local firms in emerging economies. Amsterdam University Press.
24. F. Ciabuschi, H. Dellestrand, U. Holm (2012). The role of headquarters in the contemporary MNC//Journal of International Management. Vol. 18. No. 3. P. 213-223.
25. D. R. GnyawalỊ, M. Singal, S. C. Mu (2009). Knowledge Ties Among Subsidiaries In Mncs: A Multi-Level Conceptual Model. Journal Of International Management, 15, 387-400.
26. Z. Najafi-Tavani, A. Giroud, U. Andersson (2014). The interplay of networking activities and internal knowledge actions for subsidiary influence within MNCs//Journal of World Business. Vol. 49. No. 1. P. 122-131.
27. T. C. Ambos, B. Ambos, B. B. Schlegelmilch (2006). Learning from foreign subsidiaries: An empirical investigation of headquarters' benefits from reverse knowledge transfers//International Business Review. Vol. 15. No. 3. P. 294-312.
28. R. Florida, C. Mellander, K. Stolarick (2011). Creativity and prosperity: The Global Creativity Index.
29. R. Veugelers, B. Cassiman (2005). R&D cooperation between firms and universities. Some empirical evidence from Belgian manufacturing//International Journal of Industrial Organization. Vol. 23. No. 5. P. 355-379.
30. B. Y. Eom, K. Lee (2010). Determinants of industry–academy linkages and their impact on firm performance: The case of Korea as a latecomer in knowledge industrialization//Research Policy. Vol. 39. No. 5. P. 625-639.
31. A. Cosh, A. Hughes (2010). Never mind the quality feel the width: University–industry links and government financial support for innovation in small high-technology businesses in the UK and the USA//The Journal of Technology Transfer. Vol. 35. No. 1. P. 66-91.
32. D. Schartinger, C. Rammer, M. M. Fischer, J. Fröhlich (2002). Knowledge interactions between universities and industry in Austria: sectoral patterns and determinants//Research policy. Vol. 31. No. 3. P. 303-328.
33. J. Howells, R. Ramlogan, S. L. Cheng (2012). Innovation and university collaboration: paradox and complexity within the knowledge economy Cambridge//Journal of Economics. Vol. 36. No. 3. P. 703-721.
35. D. Hedge, D. Hicks, 2008. The maturation of global corporate R&D: Evidence from the activity of U.S. foreign subsidiaries//Research Policy, 37 (3). P. 390-406.
36. D. S. Siegel, D. Waldman, A. Link (2003). Assessing the impact of organizational practices on the relative productivity of university technology transfer offices: an exploratory study//Research policy. Vol. 32. No. 1. P. 27-48.
37. S. N. Ankrah, T. F. Burgess, P. Grimshaw, N. E. Shaw (2013). Asking both university and industry actors about their engagement in knowledge transfer: What single-group studies of motives omit//Technovation. Vol. 33. No.2. P. 50-65.
38. F. Malerba (2002). Sectoral systems of innovation and production//Research policy. Vol. 31. No. 2. P. 247-264.
39. R. Cowan, P. A. David, D. Foray (2000). The explicit economics of knowledge codification and tacitness//Industrial and corporate change. Vol. 9. No. 2. P. 211-253.
40. M. Von Zedtwitz, O. Gassmann (2002). Market versus technology drive in R&D internationalization: four different patterns of managing research and development//Research policy. Vol. 31. No. 4. P. 569-588.
41. J. Howells (1990). The internationalization of R&D and the development of global research networks//Regional Studies. Vol. 24. No. 6. P. 495-512.
42. L. Hakanson, R. Nobel (1993). Research Policy. Vol. 22. Issue 5-6. P. 373-396.
43. M. F. Ramli, A. A. Senin (2015). Success factors to reduce orientation and resources-related barriers in university–industry R&D Collaboration particularly during development research stages//Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 172. P. 375-382.
44. S. Ankrah, O. AL-Tabbaa (2015). Universities–industry collaboration: A systematic review//Scandinavian Journal of Management. Vol. 31. No. 3. P. 387-408.
45. A. Panibratov (2015). Liability of foreignness of emerging market firms: The country of origin effect on Russian IT companies//Journal of East-West Business. Vol. 21. No. 1. P. 22-40.
46. F. Cassia, F. Magno (2015). Marketing issues for business-tobusiness firms entering emerging markets: an investigation among Italian companies in Eastern Europe//International Journal of Emerging Markets. Vol. 10. No. 1. P. 141-155.
47. European Commission (2011) Barriers and Drivers in European University Business Cooperation. Brussels: European Commission.
48. O. Gassmann, Z. Han (2004). Motivations and barriers of foreign R&D activities in China//R&D Management. Vol. 34. No. 4. P. 423-437.
49. J. D. Adams, E. P. Chiang, K. Starkey (2001). Industry–university cooperative research centers//The Journal of Technology Transfer. Vol. 26. No. 1-2. P. 73-86.
50. R. Fontana, A. Geuna, M. Matt (2006). Factors affecting university–industry R&D projects: The importance of searching screening and signaling//Research policy. Vol. 35. No. 2. P. 309-323.
51. S. Chandrasekaran, G. Littlefair, A. Stojcevski (2015). Staff and Students Views on Industry–University Collaboration in Engineering//International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning. Vol. 8. No. 2. P. 21-24.
52. M. Decter, D. Bennett, M. Leseure (2007). University to business technology transferr — UK and USA comparisons//Technovation. Vol. 27. No. 3. P. 145-155.
53. L. Dooley, D. Kirk (2007). University–industry collaboration: Grafting the entrepreneurial paradigm onto academic structures//European Journal of Innovation Management. Vol. 10. No. 3. P. 316-332.
54. K. Debackere, R. Veugelers (2005). The role of academic technology transfer organizations in improving industry science links//Research policy. Vol. 34. No. 3. P. 321-342.
55. D. B. Audretsch, M. P. Feldman (2004). Knowledge spillovers and the geography of innovation//Handbook of regional and urban economics. Vol. 4. P. 2713-2739.
56. W. Tsai (2001). Knowledge transfer in intraorganizational networks: effects of network position and absorptive capacity on business unit innovation and performance //Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 44. No. 5. P. 996-1004.
57. W. Hong, Y. S. Su (2013). The effect of institutional proximity in non-local university–industry collaborations: An analysis based on Chinese patent data//Research Policy. Vol. 42. No. 2. P. 454-464.
58. R. Bekkers, I. M. B. Freitas (2008). Analysing knowledge transfer channels between universities and industry: To what degree do sectors also matter?//Research policy. Vol. 37. No. 10. P. 1837-1853.
59. G. D. Markman, D. S. Siegel, M. Wright (2008). Research and technology commercialization//Journal of Management Studies. Vol. 45. No. 8. P. 1401-1423.
60. A. Hughes, M. Kitson (2012). Pathways to impact and the strategic role of universities: new evidence on the breadth and depth of university knowledge exchange in the UK and the factors constraining its development Cambridge//Journal of Economics. Vol. 36. No. 3. P. 723-750.
61. P. Phan, D. S. Siegel (2006). The effectiveness of university technology transfer//Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship. Vol. 2. No. 2. P.1-68.
62. F. T. Rothaermel, S. D. Agung, L. Jiang (2007). University entrepreneurship: a taxonomy of the literature Industrial and corporate change. Vol.16. No. 4. P. 691-791.
63. R. Kneller, M. Mongeon, J. Cope, C. Garner, P. Ternouth (2014). Industry–University Collaborations in Canada Japan the UK and USA — With Emphasis on Publication Freedom and Managing the Intellectual Property Lock-Up Problem//PloS one. Vol. 9. No. 3 e90302.
64. P. Schubert, N. Bjørn-Andersen (2012). University–Industry collaboration in IS research: An investigation of successful collaboration models//Proceedings of the International Bled Conference. P. 109-126.
65. A. Banal-Estañol, I. Macho-Stadler, D. Pérez-Castrillo (2013). Research output from university–industry collaborative projects//Economic Development Quarterly. Vol. 27. No. 1. P. 71-81.
66. A. Muscio, A. Pozzali (2013). The effects of cognitive distance in university–industry collaborations: some evidence from Italian universities//The Journal of Technology Transfer. Vol. 38. No. 4. P. 486-508.
67. R. Y. Cavana, B. L. Delahaye, U. Sekaran (2001). Applied business research: Qualitative and quantitative methods. John Wiley & Sons Australia.
68. A. B. Jaffe, M. Trajtenberg, R. Henderson (1993). Geographic localization of knowledge spillovers as evidenced by patent citations//the Quarterly journal of Economics. P. 577-598.
69. L. Anselin, V. Attila, A. Zoltan (2000). Geographical spillovers and university research: A spatial econometric perspective//Growth and change. Vol. 31. No. 4. P. 501-515.
70. C. Plewa, P. Quester (2007). Key drivers of university–industry relationships: the role of organisational compatibility and personal experience//Journal of Services Marketing. Vol. 21. No. 5. P. 370-382.