The methodological approach and the method of economy ratios optimizing were developed in the article. It is shown that the optimization of complex socio-economic systems is a creative, non formalizing process based on understanding of patterns and trends of their development, as well as knowledge of the government’s ability to manage this development. Optimization of such systems is a continuous process of gradual improvement proportions. The practical testing of the optimization method on the case of Russian manufacturing industry was made. It is shown that one of the main criteria of optimization should be the indicator: ratio of net imports and manufactured products. The minimum allowable value for this indicator was selected based on a comparison with foreign countries. The optimized structure of the economy and the effect of optimization were calculated. Russia has significant potential for industrial and technological breakthrough. This potential is the Russian domestic market, which given away to foreign producers in the part of machinery and equipment, vehicles, electrical equipment production. Return of substantial part of this market seems to be one of the most effective tools for the innovation and investment development of manufacturing industries in the coming years. Active selective state actions to protect this market are required.
Keywords: efficiency, optimality, structure optimization, manufacturing, methodology, methods, Russia’s economy