The article provides an overview of historical events in relation to the territory of the modern Yamal-Nenets autonomous district, associated with the formation and use of regional science in the development of the Arctic territories. It is shown that regional scientific centers were created for specific tasks and became participants in the processes of territorial development, the core of scientific and technological systems aimed at solving the problems of the development of the productive forces of the region and social services. During the period of industrial development of hydrocarbon reserves, the region became the frontier of the formation of the fourth technological order. However, later he did not become one of the technological leaders of the fifth and sixth technological orders and is considered only as a territory for the introduction of modern technologies. The scientific and technological development of the region in the post- Soviet period is constrained by an unfavorable institutional environment. The fourth industrial revolution is changing the face of the region’s oil and gas complex, and the digitalization of the economy increases the risks of sustainability in the public sphere. The question of the ability of the regional community to adapt to the new technological order and generate scientific and technological initiatives that help maintain the high level and quality of life achieved in previous periods of economic development remains open. The main barriers to sustainable development in the region are the insufficient level of human capital, the lack of young talents and the lack of a strategic vision of the future among the authorities
Keywords: Arctic, Yamal, science and technology development, regional scientific centers, innovation systems
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