In the article the authors compare the training systems of scientific staff with higher qualification in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and post-Soviet Russia. They analyse causes for deterioration of quality during training of scientific dissertations. The authors look the potential and limitations in the Federal Law «On Education in the Russian Federation», in particular education management in postgraduate study. They propose the reforms for the training system of scientific staff with higher qualification.
Keywords: education, scientific staff, dissertation, university, scientific organization, Russian Academy of Sciences