Author provides a review of the Russian scientists’ opinions in regards to the role of the Russian Academy of Sciences and especially basic science for the innovative activities in the economy to ensure national security and fortify national defense capability. Author gives his opinion on attacks on the Russian Academy of Sciences from the Ministry of Education and Science leaders and other statesmen. The author presents his position on this discussion. Also, the author analyses the stages of engagement of the national economy into the world technological chains. It is stressed out that a scientific-technological centre of the world level can be created on the base of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Keywords: academy of sciences, basic science, innovations, innovative systems, technological chains, macro-technologies, critical technologies