International and Russian practice in the field of containers and packaging waste management

In Russia and in many other countries countries of the world, a significant part of waste, including containers and packaging is disposed. This process is accompanied by numerous violations of environmental requirements, and it is a global problem that requires the consolidation and efforts of the goverment, agencies and consumers. The purpose of the article is to analyze the international practice on recycling of returnable containers and packaging and compare it with the situation in the situation of the govermant Russian Federation. The paper analyzes the problems associated with the state policy in the field of solid municipal waste management. Open data of statistical observations of Rosstat of the Russian Federation and Eurostat EU, sources of legal, regulatory and scientific literature were used as materials. On the basis of the analysis, the practices and scientific research devoted to logistics, recycling of returnable containers and packaging are summarized. It is shown that the share of recycled containers and packaging in the EU countries reaches 40-70% of the total weight. At the same time, the EU and the USA countries are improving the regulatory requirements for suppliers and manufacturers of packaging containers and packaging, strengthening the role of public institutions in the context of public policies to increase environmental responsibility, in terms of consolidating the Baltic region countries, to address the problems caused by the ingress of microplastics into the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Sea. For Russia, the problems of recycling returnable containers and packaging are due to the practice of the post-Soviet period, when the mechanisms of separate waste collection were lost. The level of waste recycling in the Russian Federation does not exceed 7% (according to various estimates, from 7 to 15% of plastic waste). It is obvious that the lack of scientific research in the Russian Federation, which has a high applied effect, including marketing, recycling, logistics of packaging and packaging, has led to a strong or a very remarkable slow down slowdown in the reform of solid municipal waste management, and in particular the disposal of plastic packaging and returnable packaging, despite the adoption of «extended producer responsibility»

Keywords: packaging and packaging waste, state regulation, recycling, EU countries, pollution, secondary waste resources, extended producer responsibility


  1. R. C. Thompson, C. J. Moore, F. S. vom Saal, S. H. Swan. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends//Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, № 27, 364 (1526), 2009. P. 2153-2166.
  2. S. A. Dubrovskaya. System of diagnostic criteria for urban technological complexes based on automated classification of multispectral images (Sistema diagnosticheskih kriteriev urbotekhnogennyh kompleksov na osnove avtomatizirovannoj klassifikacii mul'tispektral'nyh izobrazhenij)//[Fundamental Problems of the Russian Ecology Abstracts of the All-Russian Scientific Conference, Irkutsk – pos. Listvyanka (oz. Bajkal). Irkutsk: Izdatel'stvo Instituta geografii im. V. B.Sochavy SO RAN, 2017. P. 84. (In Russian.)
  3. A. M. Dregulo, A. M. Priluckij. On the formation of environmental education and culture in modern society (O formirovanii ekologicheskogo prosveshcheniya i kul'tury v sovremennom obshchestve)//Bulletin of the St. Petersburg State University of Technology and Design. Series 3: «Economic, Humanitarian and social Science». № 4. 2017. P. 124-129. (In Russian.)
  4. A. V. Chaplinskij, S. M. Plaksin. Risk management in the implementation of state control in Russia (Upravlenie riskami pri osushchestvlenii gosudarstvennogo kontrolya v Rossii)//Public administration issue. № 2. 2016. P. 7-29. (In Russian.)
  5. European Parliament and Council Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste, 1994.
  6. Packaging waste by waste management operations.
  7. Directive 2018/852 of the European parliament and of the council of 30 May 2018 Amending Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste.
  8. Eurostat statistic explained. Packaging waste generated, recovered and recycled, EU-27, 2008-2018.
  9. P. M. Coelho, B. Corona, R. ten Klooster, E. Worrell. Sustainability of reusable packaging – Current situation and trends//Resources, Conservation & Recycling: X, 6, 100037.2020.
  10. C. Tua, M. Grosso, L. Rigamonti. Reusing glass bottles in Italy: A life cycle assessment evaluation//Procedia CIRP, 90, 2020. P. 192-197.
  11. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council — The raw materials initiative: meeting our critical needs for growth and jobs in Europe{SEC(2008) 2741}.
  12. M. A. E. Van Sluisveld, E. Worrell. The paradox of packaging optimization – a characterization of packaging source reduction in the Netherlands//Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 73, 2013. P. 133-142.
  13. M. M. H. Chappin, M. P. Hekkert, R. van Duin. Decomposition analysis of Dutch beverage packaging waste//Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 43(2), 2005, 209-229. 
  14. W. J. F. Lemos Junior, L. P. do Amaral dos Reis, V. S. de Oliveira, L. O. Lopes, K. S. Pereira. Reuse of refillable PET packaging: Approaches to safety and quality in soft drink processing//Food Control, 100, 2019, 329-334.
  15. J. Hopewell, R. Dvorak, E. Kosior. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities//Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 364, 1526, 2009. P. 2115-2126.
  16. Evaluation of costs and benefits for the achievement of reuse and recycling targets for the different packaging materials in the frame of the packaging and packaging waste directive 94/62/EC.
  17. Q. T. Birch, P. M. Potter, P. X. Pinto, D. D. Dionysiou, S. R. Al-Abed. Sources, transport, measurement and impact of nano and microplastics in urban watersheds//Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology. № 19. 2020. P. 275-336.
  18. L. Creech. UK recycling industry braced for impact as chinese crackdown begins. Resource. 2018.
  19. M. J. De Vries, H. Jochemsen. The Normative Nature of Social Practices and Ethics in Professional Environments//Advances in Religious and Cultural Studies. 2019. P. 62
  20. O. V. Mosin. Osnovnye ekologicheskie problemy baltijskogo morya i puti ih resheniya//Baltiс region. № 1 (7). 2011. S. 41-53. (In Russian.)
  21. T. Eremina, А. Ershova, G. Martin, M. Shilin. Marine litter monitoring: review for the Gulf of Finland coast//IEEE/OES Baltic International Symposium (BALTIC), 2018. P. 1-8. 
  22. G. Schernewski, H. Radtke, R. Hauk, C. Baresel et al. Transport and Behavior of Microplastics Emissions From Urban Sources in the Baltic Sea//Frontiers in Environmental Science, 8:579361. 2020.
  23. G. M. Fedorov, T. Yu. Kuznecova. Territorial'nye osobennosti razvitiya pribrezhnyh mikrorajonov Baltijskogo regiona//Ekonomika regiona. T. 15. Vyp. 1. 2019. S. 137-150. (In Russian.)
  24. Report on the results of the expert-analytical event «Analysis of the implementation of measures to ensure the environmental safety of the Russian Federation, in terms of the elimination of objects of accumulated damage and the formation of a comprehensive system for the management of solid municipal waste». (Otchet o rezul'tatah ekspertno-analiticheskogo meropriyatiya «Analiz vypolneniya meropriyatij, obespechivayushchih ekologicheskuyu bezopasnost' Rossijskoj Federacii, v chasti likvidacii ob»ektov nakoplennogo vreda i formirovaniya kompleksnoj sistemy obrashcheniya s tverdymi kommunal'nymi othodami».) (In Russian.) /41b/41b02dc50697e6fc57ec2f389a8b68f0.pdf. 
  25. Formation, use, neutralization and disposal of production and consumption waste in the Russian Federation. Federal State Statistics Service. (Obrazovanie, ispol'zovanie, obezvrezhivanie i razmeshchenie othodov proizvodstva i potrebleniya v Rossijskoj Federacii. Federal'naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoj statistiki.) (In Russian.) https://rosstat. 
  26. I. N. Kostyukova, D. V. Lugovskoj. The concept, types and features of accounting for containers and container materials in trade organizations//Uchet. Analiz. Audit. [Učët, analiz, audit]. № 5. 2016. P. 106-121. (In Russian.)
  27. Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of 25.07.2017 № 1589-r «On approval of the list of types of production and consumption waste, which include useful components, the disposal of which is prohibited» (Rasporyazhenie Pravitel'stva RF ot 25.07.2017 № 1589-r «Ob utverzhdenii perechnya vidov othodov proizvodstva i potrebleniya, v sostav kotoryh vhodyat poleznye komponenty, zahoronenie kotoryh zapreshchaetsya»). (In Russian.)
  28. Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of December 18, 2012 № 2423-r «Action Plan for the implementation of the «Fundamentals of State policy in the field of environmental development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030». (Rasporyazhenie Pravitel'stva RF ot 18 dekabrya 2012 g. № 2423-r «Plan dejstvij po realizacii «Osnov gosudarstvennoj politiki v oblasti ekologicheskogo razvitiya RF na period do 2030» g.»). (In Russian.)
  29. Information and technical guide to the best available technologies ITS 15-2016 «Waste disposal and disposal (except for thermal disposal (waste incineration)». 2017. (Informacionno-tekhnicheskij spravochnik po nailuchshim dostupnym tekhnologiyam ITS 15-2016 «Utilizaciya i obezvrezhivanie othodov (krome obezvrezhivaniya termicheskim sposobom (szhiganie othodov))». 2017). (In Russian.)
  30. A. V. Volkova. Waste disposal market. National Research University Higher School of Economics. Development center. 2018. 87 p. (In Russian.) data/2018/07/11/1151608260/Рынок утилизации отходов 2018.pdf.
  31. K. Gavrikova.The plastic world is coming. Overview of the Russian rank of plastic packaging and packaging (Rossijskij prodovol'stvennyj rynok)//Russian Food Market. № 5 (176). 2019. P .60-63. (In Russian.)
  32. V. A. Gavrilenko.Recycling of plastic:state and perspective// № 3 (99). 2020. P. 24-29. (In Russian.)
  33. The concept of improving the institute of extended responsibility of producers and importers. Ministerstvo prirodnyh resursov i ekologii Rossijskoj Federacii. 2020. (Koncepciya sovershenstvovaniya instituta rasshirennoj otvetstvennosti proizvoditelej i importerov. 2020.) (In Russian.) Kontseptsiya-sovershentstvovaniya-instituta-ROP.pdf. 
  34. Letter of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation dated 28.03.2017 № 09-47_8797 «On current issues ispolneniya rasshirennoj otvetstvennosti proizvoditelej, importerov tovarov» (Pis'mo Ministerstva prirodnyh resursov i ekologii RF ot 28.03.2017 № 09-47_8797 «Ob aktual'nyh voprosah ispolneniya rasshirennoj otvetstvennosti proizvoditelej, importerov tovarov»). (In Russian.)
  35. Polymer recycling in Russia: present and future RUPEC/Pod red. A. Kostina. Information and Analytical Cente. 2017 (Recikling polimerov v Rossii: nastoyashchee i budushchee. Informacionno-analiticheskij centr RUPEC, 2017). 68 p. (In Russian.)
  36. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol).
  37. Sanitary rules for the collection, storage, transportation and primary processing of secondary raw materials/Information and publishing center of the State Committee for Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the Russian Federation. M.: MP «Rarog», 1992. (Date of adoption: January 22, 1982 Expiration date: November 25, 2020.) (In Russian.)