The article is staged, it shows that the blockchain technology and game-theoretic modeling are priorities for each other in terms of further development. It is justified that games with imperfect information «cover» most of the deep-seated challenges facing blockchain technology. All possible challenges of this technology are analyzed and the main ones are identified. For each of the key challenges, it is considered to what extent the answer to it is related to the need to create new scientific results in some sections of game theory. It is concluded that an essential part of the deep-seated calls of the detachment can be reduced to a game-theoretic design of the multi-agent interaction situation. In this case, a consensus is established between users of the blockchain system on the reliability of a particular transaction
Keywords: a blockchain, the distributed ledgers, game theory, establishment of consensus, decentralization, scalability, multiagent systems
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