Research and development activity and innovations are the keys of success in modern global economy. National innovation system in Russia is on the way of adaptation to new realities of market economy. The scale of national scientific activity has been reduced. System of state priorities is very much differ from the situation in developed countries. Results of scientific activity keep Russia as one of the leader in basic science. Very deep changes occur in industrial innovation process. The most successful hi-tech companies have to use dual strategy of competition-cooperation with technological leaders of world economy.